Bradford has often opened with a new British film and British cinema has been an important element of the festival. On the face of it The Look of Love looks like a good choice. Michael Winterbottom is a celebrated if controversial director, Steve Coogan has done some of his best work with Michael and the subject matter is promising. . . . On the other hand, biopics are notoriously difficult to get right. Writer Matt Greenhalgh scripted one of the best with Control and I’ve admired Michael Winterbottom’s work since I first saw Welcome to Sarajevo on a big screen in 1997. After Wonderland in 1999 I was convinced that he was the most exciting UK director around. Since then I’ve liked nearly everything he’s done and I’ve been dismayed by the failure of most of his best films to get the recognition they deserve in terms of big audiences. I think Winterbottom’s problem has been to find a new writing partner after his successful collaborations with Frank Cottrell-Boyce and his irregular link-ups with Laurence Coriat. Before the screening my main concern was how the notorious workaholic guerilla filmmaker with thirty-odd films to his name would get on with a scriptwriter who had previously worked with first-time feature directors. You can’t really get a better combination of Lancashire names than Greenhalgh-Winterbottom, so I’m sure that they got on at a personal level, but for me the film didn’t work.
Let’s take the positives first. The audience clapped at the end and several people said how much they liked it. The performances in the film were all good and the soundtrack must have cost a few bob with some nice tunes from the 1960s-1980s. After that I start to struggle. The Look of Love tells the story of Paul Raymond, the Liverpool-born ‘failed entertainer’ who became a very successful impresario in the demi-world of first nude shows in the 1950s then strip clubs and his Revuebar in Soho and eventually a softporn publishing empire. His stroke of genius (sorry, there is a pun there which was not intentional, but that’s how the ‘nudge, wink’ world works) was to put his profits into property in the West End. By the late 1990s he was one of the richest men in the UK. But money can’t buy you love – even if you do know the Beatles. Raymond’s family life was a mess, particularly in relation to his daughter who would do anything to please her father. He was seemingly a father who could not really understand the damage that he did.
In the Q & A that followed, Matt Greenhalgh answered a question about what was not in the film (e.g. Raymond’s possible dealings with criminals etc.) by saying that there were too many stories. He also said that he hadn’t done deep research in Soho. Instead, it seems that he latched onto the story of Debbie, the daughter (played by Imogen Poots). He also implied that he didn’t get to tell that story fully, because the film was really the idea of Steve Coogan who wanted to play Raymond. Here is possibly the major problem with the film. Steve Coogan, whose performances in The Trip and 24 Hour Party People I admire, is miscast as Raymond, or rather he can’t or won’t, play Raymond as a ‘character’ in this fiction. He remains Coogan, on a couple of occasions addressing the camera to say “My name is Paul Raymond”, winking at the camera on another occasion and then doing Coogan impressions of Sean Connery later Marlon Brando.
The film wants to tell the story from the 1950s to the 1990s. Raymond was born in 1925 so he was in his late 60s by the end of the film. Coogan does actually look a little like Raymond in his 60s, but he also always looks like Coogan. He’s not really helped by the film’s production design. The 1950s sequences use black and white but from then on, Soho looks more or less the same over the next forty years. You have to guess from the clothes which decade is which. For someone who was once the most audacious director around for devising a unique aesthetic approach, Winterbottom seems to have abandoned the task this time. It’s probably not helped by the absence of Marcel Zyskind whose camerawork has been the basis of that aesthetic since he acted as operator for Robbie Muller on 24 Hour Party People in 2002. (He shot two episodes of the third series of The Killing in his native Denmark in 2012 instead.)
At the end of the Q&A we got the inevitable (and justifiable) question about the film’s objectification of women. Of course, a film about a man who runs strip clubs and a soft porn publishing house has to show something, but the question (from a well-known film studies professor) was why was the film so complicit, so chummy in its representations of Raymond – and why were there no male genitalia to complement the numerous full frontals of dozens of actresses? It’s a fair point, but my feeling is that the film simply didn’t offer anything ‘strong’ to react against. Raymond wasn’t a hypocrite. He didn’t peddle Page 3 or attack women like the Daily Mail does now. He published ‘top shelf’ magazines and ran clubs that made money from the gullibility of men seeking excitement. The acres of flesh seemed to me just dull, but that was what much of that softporn world in the UK was like in the 1970s and 1980s. British representations of sex were at one time mostly comical. If they were sexy it was because of an element of realism – the ‘Readers’ Wives’ aesthetic if you like. It’s ironic that in one scene it’s just possible to glimpse a poster of Joe Losey’s The Servant (a poster for Billy Liar appears in another scene). There is much more eroticism in one look from Dirk Bogarde or a wriggle by Sarah Miles than in the whole of The Look of Love. Having said that, at least the women in Winterbottom’s film looked ‘real’ and not sculpted and plucked like Christmas turkeys. Anna Friel and Tamsin Egerton as Raymond’s wife Jean and his girlfriend Fiona Richmond make the most of what they are offered, but they deserved more. There is a story in here, probably more than one, but they need to be told in such a way to bring out not just the personal relationships but also something about the changes in British social life over the period. If it had more bite the film would be more entertaining and might also generate some debate.
If I was sceptical of the idea of an Indian-set retelling of Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles, then Trishna removed them successfully. Michael Winterbottom’s third adaptation of a Hardy novel (following The Claim – based on The Mayor of Casterbridge – and Jude) this updates Tess to modern Rajasthan, a province still functioning as a rural community enough alike to nineteenth century Dorset (or Wessex) to make the parallels less of a gimmick and more living and breathing motivations for the characters. It is a place where the kind of passivity that Tess shows in the face of all decisions would be credible – for a Western audience – in a young girl from a poor family. What more local audiences will make of this – and in particular after some of the controversy that Slumdog Millionaire generated – I’d really like to hear.
Being able to see this pretty much back to back with Andrea Arnold’s Wuthering Heights, shows how two of the main contenders for current leading British filmmaker approach their work with such an eye for the essences of the story and a desire to make it truly modern. Arnold’s film catches you with how it blends both the language of the novel with modern expressions – without the two jarring and so emphasising how little the essences of people and their passions change. It is embedded in the storytelling through the dialogue – a better claim for contemporaneity than any of the surface glosses (wet shirts, tousled hair) added in order to ‘sex up’ and so update certain Austen or Bronte adaptations. Quite differently, Winterbottom has engaged with aspects of Indian culture to create a world where the girl from the village, Trishna, can believably wish to aspire to be part of a glamour that would usually be completely out of her reach – the world of the Westernised Jay whose father owns the luxury hotels to pander to tourists’ colonial nostalgia and who dabbles in the fringes of Bollywood, his money attractive to ambitious filmmakers and musicians. There’s a very modern dilemma for Trishna. Winterbottom (responsible for the screenplay as well as the direction) allows the narrative to generate other possibilities that the lead character could follow in twenty-first century Mumbai. How she chooses to resolve her situation would be huge spoiler – so I won’t spoil it.
In the Q&A following the screening, Winterbottom and Pinto discussed working with a treatment and exploring improvisations extensively (the dialogue is very loose and naturalistic in line with this) and how many of the characters are non-professional locals in the area around Ossian (a city which is off the regular tourist track – as Jay’s group comments – but which looked stunning in Marcel Zyskind’s cinematography) playing a version of themselves. Pinto spent a long time with the real jeep driver’s family who play her family in the film – and that is tangible in the warm on-screen relationships making their relationship much more central than in the novel. Winterbottom had long eyed that area as ideal for an adaptation of Tess – since he went there for Code 46 (another even more improvisational narrative, with some of the same issues of power and disenfranchisement as we find here).
The music drives the story. From the homage sequences to Bollywood films – where a dance rehearsal in the story breaks out of its frame within a frame to become a brief performance sequence direct to camera – to the Indian movies playing on the television. Better minds than mine will be able to furnish the specific references but it’s a melodrama in the true sense in the way it subsumes the music into the drama. The girls (‘milkmaids’) dance with youthful joy and abandon to the TV sequence, knowing all the moves – by turns sexy, provocative but with a carelessness that is innocent of their seductiveness. (This is at the heart of Tess too). The process of working with Amit Trivedi during the course of the film – so that the original songs were developed during shooting enabling them to be embedded into the story (commenting back on the action as is familiar in this style of movie). The original theme is a lyrical, elegiac melody – imbued with a tone more nineteenth than twenty-first century. Written by Shigeru Umebayashi (who was responsible for just such another affecting score on A Single Man) it returns periodically to overlay the romance.
Winterbottom commented that if Pinto and Ahmed had not agreed to do the film, then it simply would not have been made. This is a very typical publicity puff we’re all used to hearing on the DVD extras, except this time it was more convincing. These two actors are what British stars are made of – embodying an charisma outside their character and a conviction within it. Ahmed, in particular, handled a character combining both Alec and Angel well to maintain engagement with a potentially unsympathetic role. It made me want to see them in a role where their ethnic origin, or their ability to represent those roles, was removed. (Although I see Ahmed has subsequently worked with Mira Nair on an American-set 9/11 related narrative – her handling of such a narrative would be a must-see following films such as The Namesake).
Music has been such as integral part of Winterbottom’s film conceptions – there are the obvious links via Nine Songs and 24 hour Party People; there are the collaborations with Michael Nyman in Wonderland and The Claim; a clip played from Jude reminded me of that haunting folk melodies that convey the melancholy and impending tragedy in that story. In an accompanying screen talk, Winterbottom outlined how that process differs from film to film (not surprising given the wide diversity of material he engages with) and it reminded me what a versatile role music plays in his films.
The Trip seems to me almost perfect – but I’m intrigued to see that it is selling in North America and around Europe and I do wonder what audiences outside the UK will make of it. Actually, I wonder what some UK audiences outside the North of England will make of it.
Steve Coogan and Rob Brydon play two characters who are fictional versions of their ‘real life’ selves. They first did this in A Cock and Bull Story (UK 2005), in which they are actors playing in a film production of the famously ‘unfilmable novel’, Tristram Shandy, directed by a fictional Michael Winterbottom (played by Jeremy Northam). The ‘real’ Winterbottom is the ringmaster of this postmodern comedy which proved to be a modest hit. The Trip is similarly a Winterbottom-directed Revolution Films production, again with BBC Films and Coogan’s Baby Cow.
Coogan is sent on a ‘Northern tour’ of gourmet restaurants in the most beautiful locations imaginable in North Lancashire, North Yorkshire and the Lake District. He’s meant to be writing an article for the Observer and had intended to take his girlfriend but they have just split up, so he ropes in Brydon as a travelling companion – but it’s work, “we aren’t on holiday”. In the UK this is a TV series (6 x 30 minutes) but it is also being sold outside the UK as a 100 minute film. Some territories seem to be taking both the series and the film.
Each episode of the TV series features a different location, usually a country house style guesthouse/inn with a dining room or a separate restaurant in the vicinity. There is a continuous narrative in which Coogan keeps in touch with his office, his children and his exes and sometimes a local conquest like the lovely Magda in Episode 1. Otherwise, the main ‘content’ of the show is the banter between Coogan and Brydon between the endless courses of beautifully-prepared food and their trips in a Range Rover between each location.
I confess that the best thing about the series for me is the camerawork and the proper representation of what is the most beautiful landscape in the UK. This isn’t the ‘chocolate box’ imagery of much of the Lakes, although there is some of that, but the much more subtle and mysterious beauty of the dales and the Forest of Bowland (‘forest’ in its original English meaning doesn’t imply trees – it means hunting land). many films and television programmes have filmed in the region, but rarely do they capture these qualities. One of the few exceptions is Whistle Down the Wind (UK 1961) shot in the Ribble Valley by Arthur Ibbetson (who was from Bishop Auckland in Co. Durham and no doubt knew how to handle the light). I’m not sure what Simon Tindall’s background is but he has worked on Michael Winterbottom’s productions for several years. I do wonder if the real motivation for The Trip comes from Winterbottom having some form of mid-life epiphany and remembering his Blackburn childhood and trips into the Dales. The series is filmed in winter and I think that was a good decision. The YouTube link at the foot of this post shows the opening of the first episode and the couple’s arrival at the Inn at Whitewell in Bowland. I know that the landscape isn’t what attracts most viewers to the series, but I wanted to foreground it because I was so pissed off with a couple of London reviewers who moaned because the restaurants weren’t going to be in Manchester or some other urban area. In the UK, Lancashire is often assumed to be dirty and industrial so this is me trying to get my retaliation in first. (These are real restaurants by the way and you can get reasonable bar meals in the pubs and avoid the expensive gourmet stuff.)
What will attract audiences is the banter. Coogan and Brydon are brave actors, prepared to improvise around exaggerated versions of themselves. The exaggerations make Coogan even more paranoid and egocentric and Brydon perhaps more of a put-upon companion, always ready to bounce back like one of those toy figures you can’t knock over. I guess all male double acts are like this and there are one or two elements of Laurel (Brydon) and Hardy (Coogan) at certain moments. In the Q&As from the Toronto Film Festival on YouTube, both men said that they wouldn’t have been happy doing the same thing with any other director, only Michael Winterbottom – and that rings true to me. The jokes are mainly about the assumed characters of the two men and the ‘mimic wars’ are the crowning glory of the banter. I marvelled at Brydon’s skill in taking off Michael Caine, Ray Winstone etc. (there were plenty I didn’t get, however) but then Coogan tops it with a version that is even better. This is where the brilliance of the concept really shows itself. I was left thinking that Brydon is entertaining and very likable (yet also possibly irritating) but Coogan is actually more of a star and more skilled as an actor, even if he is a pillock. How close is that to the ‘real’ Rob and Steve? Brave men indeed and they’ve provided the only TV entertainment I’ve positively looked forward to since the last time Victoria Wood offered something new. Good on yer, Lads!
Here’s a taster if the show hasn’t reached you yet.
The release of this film made me think of that phrase often used about weddings and funerals in Michael Winterbottom’s native Lancashire – “there was a lot said”. Unfortunately, most of what was said by general commentators in the media focused on the charge of misogyny and gratuitous violence which first arose at Sundance and has dogged the film ever since. The result is that some of the audience who might appreciate the film have chosen not to see it.
But is there anything worthwhile to say about the film as a film and an example of cinematic art? I wouldn’t argue that it is a particularly outstanding film, but it is a good example of the work of a significant team of filmmakers. I’m not going to focus specifically on the violence in the film – I was one of those viewers aware of what would happen, so I just covered my eyes and didn’t watch the two offending scenes when the most brutal moments came. I’m still not sure what I think about these scenes that I heard rather than saw, but I don’t think I missed anything since the brutality was signified very effectively through the sound effects. On the other hand, I’m not going to argue against the director’s decision to include them as part of his presentation of the narrative. Rona is going to offer her thoughts on this.
For anyone who hasn’t read about the plot of the film, The Killer Inside Me is a close adaptation of a crime novel by one of the most ‘hardboiled’ of American pulp writers, Jim Thompson. The title refers to a young sheriff’s deputy in a small Texas town who commits a series of murders – perhaps rationally to protect himself, perhaps not. As the title suggests, there is a mis-match between the young man’s outward demeanour and what is going on inside his head. This is a classic film noir narrative, set in the early 1950s (which in Hollywood marked the most vicious period of the noir crime film).
What makes the film interesting initially is that it is the work of one of the two most prolific and celebrated production teams in British Cinema – here tackling a completely American property for the first time (even if it is actually their third independent US production). Revolution Films, the company set up by producer Andrew Eaton and director Michael Winterbottom, has produced films at an astonishing rate since the mid 1990s with sixteen features (including one documentary) in sixteen years. Many of these films have featured at Cannes, Berlin, San Sebastian etc. winning a number of prizes. Only Ken Loach with Rebecca O’Brien and Paul Laverty comes anywhere near this record. Yet Loach wins out because his films win bigger prizes and usually much bigger audiences. It’s a tribute to Andrew Eaton’s producer skills that Revolution’s lack of commercial success doesn’t seem to prevent them from financing the next production. Presumably there is enough income from ‘ancillary’ sales to balance the books.
I think that there are two reasons why Revolution Films don’t make it with audiences and with mainstream reviewers. The first is that Winterbottom’s choice of subject matter combined with rigorous aesthetic choices and narrative experiments results in films either dogged by controversy or lacking in immediate mainstream appeal. I offer you the film under discussion here alongside A Mighty Heart and 9 Songs on the one hand and films like Genova or Code 46 on the other. So, the films don’t hit big in the multiplex – but if they win festival prizes why don’t they work in the arthouses? Arthouse audiences are often quite conservative in the sense that they like to know what they are getting and Winterbottom confounds easy ideas about auteurs who make the same film over and over. Instead he makes melodramas, postmodern comedies, science fiction, romantic comedy, realist thrillers, westerns, literary adaptations – no film is like the last one and each is also likely to be stylistically different.
I ought to put my cards on the table. For me, Wonderland (UK 1999) was the best British film of the 1990s and The Claim (UK/Canada/France 2000) the most ambitious and best realised production of the past twenty years (well, you try adapting The Mayor of Casterbridge as a gold-rush western and shooting it in an Albertan winter). I’ve seen everything since 1994 apart from 9 Songs (UK 2004) and every one of the films has been interesting in different ways. Overall, however, I’d say that the more controversial and more ‘popular’ subjects have been less interesting than the left-field ones. And that is possibly my problem with The Killer Inside Me.
Winterbottom has said that his main aim was to create a ‘literal’ adaptation of the novel. I think he felt that Thompson had created a unique perspective on crime – from within the mind of the killer. Certainly the narrative is constructed with Lou Ford (Casey Affleck) at its centre and we only see other characters when they meet Lou. The two obvious points to make here are that Lou is the classic ‘unreliable narrator’ and we have no way of knowing how much of what we see is actually fantasy and secondly that this strategy allows Winterbottom and screenwriter John Curran to argue that any charges of misogyny should be directed towards the fictional character (and, presumably, Jim Thompson). The creation of an unreliable narrator seems to me to be a valid artistic decision. The second point is more problematic. Thompson is a complex figure as a writer and according to his wife Alberta was . . . “a gentle sensitive man who loved animals and was of course a devoted husband and father” (quoted by Nick Kimberley in the introduction to a compendium of Thompson’s novels, Zomba Books, London 1983). He was writing at a specific moment in American popular culture and from a specific perspective as a struggling pulp writer. The question Winterbottom doesn’t seem to have answered is why adapt the novel now and why feign surprise that many will find the film offensive?
There is undoubtedly a case to be made against Revolution for simply seeking out controversial projects or perhaps creating a self-image such that for productions like A Mighty Heart Winterbottom seems like the most straightforward choice of director. It’s also worth noting that the previous Revolution Films production was the Red Riding Trilogy for Channel 4. Winterbottom wasn’t directly involved with that production as far as I know, but Andrew Eaton certainly was. But I don’t really want to explore Revolution’s history here. Instead I’ll focus on two issues: the aesthetics of the film and its status as film noir.
Winterbottom and aesthetic choices
What you get in a Michael Winterbottom film is something that looks and feels different. That’s obvious in the credit sequence of most of Revolution’s films and here there is some lovely use of typography with a strong country soundtrack. From then on, Winterbottom and his regular cinematographer Marcel Zyskind create very cold and clean images of the Texas oilfields (with some shooting in Oklahoma). If the intention was to look for a ‘Thompson aesthetic’ – the look of Hud, The Last Picture Show, Written on the Wind etc. The print I saw was digital which enhanced the feel of bleakness. Other than this textural quality, I didn’t notice the camerawork and colour that much – because the narrative is so gripping and the plot moves forward so quickly (as in the novel). (I can’t believe the IMDB posters who find the film ‘boring’ or who don’t see any ‘characterisation’.)
The textural feel is supported by the excellent costume design and casting choices. I thought at first that Joyce and Amy were just too beautiful for a small town prostitute and a schoolteacher, but the casting is consistent with Winterbottom’s aim to be ‘true’ to the novel.
Now that I’ve read the novel, I’m tempted to think more about the genre repertoires and themes which the film explores. The Killer Inside Me qualifies as noir in a number of ways. Thompson is clearly a pulp writer – though none of his novels were made into films at the time. He did work on film and TV scripts later in the 1950s and 1960s – but mostly in other genres. Perhaps his crime novels were considered too violent? Or perhaps they were too far ahead of popular taste?
The violence towards women features in several noirs of the period. In Fritz Lang’s The Big Heat (1953), Gloria Grahame is disfigured by scalding coffee deliberately thrown by Lee Marvin’s violent thug. In Kiss Me Deadly (1955), a young woman is tortured to death. In both films, however, the extreme violence is offscreen (see the clips below – the end of the Kiss Me Deadly intro):
The ‘narration’ of The Killer Inside Me is in some ways similar to that of the William Holden character in Sunset Boulevard, but the theme of the film looks forward to later films such as Psycho. Thompson’s writing style shares with Winterbottom’s directorial style in impatience with spelling everything out. Audiences have to work hard to put together the plot information, but there are plenty of clues. Lou Ford is insane (though US audiences seem to have missed this in many cases). His behaviour is influenced by childhood trauma and he entertains himself with his father’s medical books (the soundtrack also offers us Mahler, Richard Strauss and Donizetti alongside Western Swing to represent Lou’s two worlds). The only elements in the book that don’t appear in the movie (unless I’ve already forgotten them!) are a visit to Lou’s house from a quack psychiatrist and Lou’s use of prescription drugs to pep up his sexual performance. Both of these could be part of 40s/50s noir but the childhood trauma seems like a relatively new reason for the injection of violence into the doomed life of the male protagonist. In earlier noirs, the trauma is often associated with wartime experience. The novel reveals that part of the reason for Lou’s aggression towards the DA Howard Hendricks is that Lou is fed up with hearing about Hendricks’ war experience and the shrapnel lodged in his body. Lou himself is 29, so at the time of the main US recruitment of young men to fight in 1944 he would have been 21. Why didn’t he enlist? Why too is there no sense of the Korean War or the mounting anti-Communist hysteria? Is this again because we are inside the head of an insane man – someone with a sickness that blots out the rest of the world?
I suspect that a closer examination of The Killer Inside Me will prompt some more thoughts when the DVD becomes available. Meanwhile Winterbottom and Eaton have a new project – Promised Land, exploring the Stern Gang, the notorious Jewish guerilla group that murdered several British soldiers and police officers (as well as ordinary Palestinians and two major diplomats) in Palestine in the 1940s before the 1948 war. That won’t be controversial in the US will it?
The Shock Doctrine is a documentary produced by Revolution Films for the digital TV channel More4 in the UK. It is written, edited and directed by Michael Winterbottom and Mat Whitecross who also worked together on The Road to Guantanamo (2006). The film is structured around the public lectures delivered by the Canadian writer and activist Naomi Klein who produced a book with the same title in 2007. The Guardian reported that Klein has since asked for her name to be taken off the credits for the film since she would have preferred a rather different approach to be taken – this after she initially approached Winterbottom to make the film (see the Times Online). Klein had originally made a short film with Alfonso Cuaron which is currently on YouTube and this is what she wanted Winterbottom to expand:
Klein’s book presents her argument that it is possible to trace the connection between the methods espoused by the right-wing ideologues in the US (including the CIA and the Chicago School economists led by Milton Friedman) and the tactics deployed in peace and war via US political, economic and military power – part of what she terms ‘disaster capitalism’, a process whereby planned economies are effectively destroyed in order to allow ‘unfettered capitalism’ to create a much more unequal society in which the rich get much richer and the poor suffer most. The story begins in the 1950s with CIA experiments with methods of torture using shock treatment and sensory deprivation to get compliance from prisoners (subsequently used in Chile and then Iraq more than 40 years later) and runs through the pain and suffering caused by Pinochet, the Argentinian Junta, the economic policies of Thatcher and Reagan, the capitalism out-of-control in Russia and Eastern Europe after 1989 and the consequences of 9/11, the ‘War on Terror’ and the disasters of Iraq and Afghanistan (and the scandal of the domestic disaster of Hurricane Katrina).
Winterbottom’s decision was to edit passages of Klein’s address in various locations into a continuous filmed history comprising archive material edited together with a bridging commentary narrated by a ‘voice of God’ – actually Kieran O’Brien. Klein would have liked more interview material.
Watching the film on More 4, a commercial channel with irritating ad breaks, sponsorship clips from Volkswagen and confusing trailers for other docs meant that it wasn’t possible to fully appreciate the editing work of Whitecross and Winterbottom, but I think that they were probably right in terms of maintaining flow to limit the interview material.
The film previewed at Berlin earlier this year and has been bought by E1 for distribution in North America. I would guess that it will eventually appear on DVD. It will cause a furore simply because it is a straight down the line left analysis. It has the advantage over Michael Moore of being quite sober and chilling, but is equally accessible. I have to confess that it does get pretty simplistic at times (e.g. in the discussion of Milton Friedman’s influence on UK economic policy, which began with Callaghan before Thatcher) but overall I would agree with its stance. The biggest plus comes from Naomi Klein’s admirably direct polemic which creates a powerful ‘meta narrative’ – she actually analyses the narrative of the Shock Doctrine across fifty years and in doing so puts the boot firmly into the postmodernists whose frivolity and claims for the end of history and grand narratives has threatened to evacuate politics from public discourse. The doc may be a little glib but it’s great to hear a political polemic delivered using intelligent language as eloquently as she does (the lectures look very impressive) and without having to resort to the tricks of Reality TV.
I’m not sure that there is much new in the argument but the footage is worth seeing and the overall impact of the message is what is most important. The sickening footage of Thatcher and Pinochet together juxtaposed with footage of the horrific events of the American-backed coup in Chile in 1973 (from Patricio Guzmán’s film Battle of Chile, I think) are what it is all about. In a brief statement before the screening, Winterbottom said he made the film because his daughter was now old enough to vote and he wanted her to be aware of how what happened before she was born is still relevant to what is happening now.
Check the More4 website for future screenings.
Having thought that I’d missed Genova, I managed to catch it in France where it is titled Un été Italian. I seem to have spent a long time extolling the virtues of Michael Winterbottom and defending him in the face of indifference or hostility. As a result, I was a little worried about seeing this feature which has hung around since last Summer before getting a release. It hasn’t helped that the only Winterbottom films that have been deemed commercially successful tend to be those that for me are his least interesting, such as A Cock and Bull Story (UK 2005). It’s a relief then that Genova is a big return to form for Winterbottom fans – and of course another commercial disaster.
For most reviewers, Winterbottom’s main distinguishing feature as a director is that he constantly moves from one genre to another and can’t be pinned down. The implication is that this is a problem, rather than an indication that Winterbottom is an auteur filmmaker who makes films for his own reasons. If he does draw on genre repertoires, it isn’t usually in order to frame a story in genre terms. For mainstream audiences this presents a real problem in that the films do not offer conventional structures – or rather they do not fulfil the expectations that generic story structures set up. This is certainly true of Genova, which perhaps has less ‘plot’ than any other Winterbottom film and instead offers the most intense and emotional representation of a brief period in the lives of the central characters.
If Genova draws on any generic repertoire, it is the current cycle of psychological horror/ghost stories, but its clearest referent is not a modern Japanese or Spanish film but Nic Roeg’s adaptation of Daphne du Maurier’s short story Don’t Look Now (UK 1973). In that classic film Julie Christie and Donald Sutherland are a couple who are deeply in love, but grief-stricken over the death of one of their children. When they visit Venice they are disturbed by a sense of foreboding in fleeting sightings of a mysterious figure. In Genova, a university lecturer (Colin Firth) loses his wife in a car crash which his two daughters survive. He decides to take the girls to the Northern Italian city of Genoa/Genova for the Summer to help with the grieving process. The comparison between the two films is valid but not helpful towards an understanding of what Genova is actually about. Don’t Look Now is a genuine melodrama/thriller with conscious attempts to draw in an audience through the strength of the bond between the parents and the sheer terror that threatens them in the potentially supernatural mise en scène of the dark canals. Genova is much more circumspect about what constitutes a ‘ghost’ and is in many ways a supremely realist film. In fact, it made me think about another film concerning grief on a trip through Italy – Rossellini’s Viaggio in Italia (Italy 1953).
I’ve called Winterbottom an auteur, but I’m sure he would also credit the authorial contributions of his collaborators. The other ways to approach Genova are via its writer Laurence Coriat and its familiar crew members, especially Marcel Zyskind as cinematographer. Laurence Coriat wrote my favourite Michael Winterbottom film, Wonderland (UK 1999). She is also working with Winterbottom on a long-term project featuring Wonderland‘s John Simm and Shirley Henderson and on a film with Marc Evans, a long-time friend of Winterbottom and Andrew Eaton and the Revolution Films set-up. Coriat is almost an ‘in-house’ writer and with the usual suspects on set, it would seem that Genova must have had a sense of coherence as a project. Having said that, Winterbottom’s shooting strategy and Eaton’s approach to squeezing every drop out of the tightest of budgets must always make shooting a film like this extremely demanding.
The production set-up recalls Code 46 (2003) which also featured a North American star (Tim Robbins) plunged into the world of low-budget ‘guerilla filmmaking’ on the streets of Shanghai. Robbins was not too impressed by the rigours of the shooting method but Catherine Keener in Genova seems more receptive in interviews. Code 46 is a lot more plot driven, but both films tend to have narrative ‘gaps’ that audiences are expected to fill and endings which are very open. I like this and it doesn’t cause me problems.
Colin Firth now lives in Italy so presumably he found himself on solid ground. Catherine Keener plays a friend, an old classmate from Harvard, who works in Genoa. She helps widower Joe and his two girls travel to the city and arranges a temporary post for him at the university. Keener is a well-known in American Independent Cinema. The two girls are played by Willa Holland and Perla Haney-Jardine (who I later discovered I’d seen in the US remake of Dark Water). I think that Firth is meant to be a Brit, though I didn’t really reflect on this as globe-trotting academics are pretty common these days. The low budget production includes a winter driving scene in Sweden and some UK work as well as a Chicago street scene and the main shoot in Italy. The only production issues for me were the casting of Kerry Shale (nice man, but aren’t there any other American actors in the UK – his presence makes me think of plays on Radio 4) and the use of Ryanair as the airline flying into Genoa (from the US?). The real benefit of course is the freedom to shoot in the Zyskind style.
What this means in terms of the emotional feel of the film is the disorientation brought on by hand-held ‘Scope camerawork with sometimes jarring cutting. Everything is filmed in available light, so we linger in darkened rooms or move between dark and light with all the problems of re-adjusting. This makes the film quite uncomfortable to watch, but matches the numbness and lack of focus felt by the characters. The architecture of Genoa also plays a part as characters (i.e. the girls) have to follow a route through narrow alleyways. Zyskind tilts the camera up to show us the bright sky struggling to reach down into the narrow alleys as the girls wonder where they are. This effect matches that of Christie in Sutherland in the similarly dark alleys and canals of Venice. The effect also carries over into a sequence in the woods close to the beach where another search takes place.
In a sense, Genova is an ‘anti-melodrama’. The characters get angry, but mostly their emotions are pushed down. So much in fact that I’ve seen complaints that the Firth character is a ‘bad father’ who seems indifferent to his wife’s death and unconcerned about what is happening to his children. I think he’s shown as behaving in the way many English men would. He suppresses emotion. In a melodrama, this would then ‘return’ to be expressed as an emotional release in some way, but here Winterbottom constructs a narrative with cold realism and the result for me was devastating. I’ve never really rated Firth before (I’m afraid I’ve generally ignored him) but here I thought he was excellent. Two crucial scenes with Catherine Keener struck me as the most psychologically ‘real’ I’ve seen for a long time. Here’s a movie I’d recommend to anyone prepared to question their own emotional responses to film narratives.
Code 46 is set in the future when the rich live in large ‘sealed’ cities whilst the poor struggle on the ‘outside’, mainly in desert communities. Travel requires expensive insurance and papers proving that someone is genetically ‘acceptable’ and can enter and leave the cities. Tim Robbins plays a telepathic investigator hired by an insurance company in Shanghai to find the person who is producing false travel documents, but when he meets Samantha Morton he discovers more than he bargained for.
The following notes were produced for an evening class:
The producer-director team of Andrew Eaton and Michael Winterbottom (aka Revolution Films) has no equal in the UK film industry in terms of the fecundity of ideas or the bravura with which they are realised. Starting with Butterfly Kiss in 1994, Winterbottom and Eaton have completed a dozen features in ten years, five of them with screenwriter Frank Cottrell Boyce.
None of these films has exactly set the box-office alight, but several have won prizes and become festival favourites around the world – Winterbottom has been the most visible UK presence at Cannes since Welcome to Sarajevo (not produced by Eaton, but scripted by Boyce) was screened in competition in 1997. Revolution Films (not to be confused with the Hollywood company Revolution Studios) has an enviable reputation for getting films made on time and within budget. No doubt this pleases the financial backers, but everything else about the Winterbottom/Eaton partnership appears dedicated to resisting industry expectations.
When asked about his influences, Michael Winterbottom often refers to the New German Cinema of the 1970s (he was a teenager in Blackburn at that time) and it is tempting to compare some of Revolution Films’ production ideas to those of German director Werner Herzog, who famously dragged a steamship over the Andes to recreate a journey in Fitzcarroldo (Germany 1982). Eaton and Winterbottom took The Claim (2000), their adaptation of Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge to Alberta in the winter for a similarly gruelling shoot and in 2002 they made In This World literally ‘on the road’ from Pakistan to London.
It was the experience of the In This World shoot which inspired the approach to Code 46. The locations in Shanghai and Dubai were chosen because of what they could offer to the film’s narrative, but also because they could be utilised quickly and inexpensively as part of what Andrew Eaton has referred to as ‘guerilla filmmaking’. The crew for the location shooting was little more than Winterbottom, camera and sound crew navigating themselves around one of the world’s busiest and most ‘futuristic’ cities. Again according to Eaton, Tim Robbins found the experience unnerving – and perhaps that works in producing his edgy performance of a man genuinely uneasy in his situation.
Every one of Revolution Films’ productions offers bold aesthetic choices – the colours of I Want You (1998) conjured up by Slawomir Idziak (creator of images for Krzysztof Kieslowski), Manchester as digital fantasy filmed by Robby Müller (long time collaborator of Wim Wenders, Jim Jarmusch etc.) in 24 Hour Party People (2002), the lyrical 16mm camera and direct sound of Wonderland (1999) and the austere black and white opening of Jude (1996). Whatever the ostensible genre of the film, Winterbottom and Eaton will have a distinctive and illuminating approach. On Code 46, Winterbottom used Alwin Kuchler, well-known for his work with Lynne Ramsay, as well as Winterbottom on The Claim and the young Danish ‘whizz-kid’, Marcel Zyskind, who shot In This World after working under Robbie Müller on 24 Hour Party People. Zyskind has since photographed the next two Winterbottom films. Revolution Films use a limited number of personnel who understand and appreciate the ‘guerilla’ way of working and this closely-knit ‘creative team’ is essential if the unconventional working methods are going to be successful.
The aesthetics are invariably complemented by strong acting performances. Actors are required to ‘take risks’ in performance and the films often feature scenes of great emotional intensity. Samantha Morton in Code 46 carries on the excellent work undertaken by Gina McKee, Shirley Henderson and Molly Parker in Wonderland.
The team’s approach to production is quite different to that of mainstream Hollywood, especially in terms of narrative development. There is no conscious attempt to present complex narrative twists or to be wilfully obscure, but there is an assumption that audiences will ‘work’ to understand characterisation and that they will forgive ‘holes’ in the plot or loose ends that aren’t tied up. This isn’t sloppy filmmaking, rather it is simply that less importance is afforded to ‘polishing’ scripts and explaining everything for the literal-minded audience. Perhaps this is why the films suffer at the multiplex box office. Code 46 follows this pattern and because it appears on the surface to be a familiar genre picture, it probably irritated even more mainstream audiences than usual. Conversely, audiences prepared to take it on its own terms should find it very enjoyable.
Hollywood is careful not to use the term ‘science fiction’ (which they think will alienate audiences), but reviewers will use the ugly shorthand ‘sci-fi’ without a second thought. Fans of the genre are divided between the action adventure of ‘sci-fi’ and the more cerebral pleasures of ‘sf’. Sometimes known as ‘hard sf’, because of a concern for scientific plausibility and philosophical exploration, the latter also acts as an abbreviation for ‘speculative fiction’ – the preferred term by novelists like Margaret Atwood who want to resist the connection to Star Trek and Men in Black. Code 46 is unusual in being an original script by a writer not noted for work in the genre.
‘Sf’ speculates about a near future, not too dissimilar to contemporary experience, in which the narrative interest depends on the impact of scientific and sociological changes on the lives of the central characters. Code 46 draws on genetics, population migrations, the growing power of multinational corporations and the development of the ‘walled cities’ of the rich and privileged. As such it draws on several other well known films, including adaptations of Philip K. Dick stories such as Blade Runner, Total Recall and Minority Report, with their telepaths and memory implants. Boyce creates a recognisable ‘Dickian’ world, but for some audiences comparisons with these big budget films will not be helpful (Samantha Morton also appears in an important role in Spielberg’s Dick adaptation, Minority Report). The Hollywood films are able to create (expensively produced) ‘future worlds’ and promise ‘action’ and ‘thrills’. Code 46 is more concerned with relationships and social questions.
A better reference would be to Gattaca (US 1997), both in terms of its theme of genetic ‘validity’ and in its ‘look’. Photographed by Slawomir Idziak, Gattaca drew directly on ideas about representing the future developed by French New Wave directors. Chris Marker was first to make a short sf film based solely on still photographs of Orly Airport (Paris) in La Jetée (1962). Jean-Luc Godard followed on with Alphaville in 1965 and François Truffaut with his adaptation of Fahrenheit 451 (filmed in Roehampton, SW London) in 1966. These are more likely inspirations for the approach in Code 46.
Code 46 is the fourth of Winterbottom’s films to feature migration/crossing borders. Welcome to Sarajevo focuses on a child brought out of Bosnia and I Want You features refugees in an English seaside town. In This World focuses entirely on the process of ‘crossing borders’.
What does migration mean in a globalised economy/culture? Should we still be thinking in terms of migration from the relatively underdeveloped ‘South’ and ‘East’ to the prosperous ‘North’ (America) and ‘West’ (Europe)? Code 46 suggests that geography and even language are no longer the basis for ‘borders’. More important is the concept of being ‘inside’ or ‘outside’. The crucial passport that allows entry to the high tech cities is a ‘papelle’, a combined visa and insurance certificate. The idea of multinationals having ultimate power is an sf staple, but the focus on ‘insurance’ is a new concept and might be interestingly explored in terms of the UK government’s current interest in identity cards and iris scanning and the introduction of ‘chip and pin’ credit cards by the major banks. Pretty soon we will need an officially sanctioned ‘identity’ for every aspect of life. That identity will certainly be worth stealing. Will it also be required in order to have children?
The relationship between the ‘inside’/’outside’ communities and the after effects of uncontrolled genetic engineering is never really explained in the film. Instead, we are asked to consider the possibility of what a love affair might be like in a society in which identity (and memory) are not something we can decide for ourselves – both are effectively in the control of corporations. The film mixes the conventions of the romance – the chance encounter, moments of happiness and regret, secrets, unexplainable passions – with the familiar concerns of issue-based sf. If they don’t gel ‘perfectly’, surely that is because the future is uncertain?
Revolution Films often use music imaginatively and in an inspired moment, Mick Jones of the Clash was invited onto the ‘set’ in India where he performed ‘Should I Stay or Should I Go’. When this appears in the film, it has a strong impact for many in the audience who will think, “Who is that? What’s that song? I know it,” or as Noel Coward put it, “It’s extraordinary how potent cheap music is”. Romance is very much about the memories that belong to us – but memories can also be manipulated, obliterated and falsely created in an uncertain world of borders, both real and imaginary.
A brief encounter
Code 46 offers a good example of what happens to a film narrative in development before shooting begins. Frank Cottrell Boyce began work on the script after initial discussion with Andrew Eaton and Michael Winterbottom, aiming to write a science fiction story that combined elements of the love story, film noir and Greek mythology. The cinematic models were Brief Encounter, Casablanca and The English Patient – narratives in which something prevents two people in love being together. Boyce was also influenced by the script he had just finished, Pandemonium (UK 2000), and the relationship between William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy.
The completed film owes much to Winterbottom’s experience of shooting In this World, especially in the use made of the locations. We will want to discuss how the ‘ingredients’ from Boyce’s script were eventually made into the final film. Our approach will be, as with Out of Sight, to think about how we ‘read’ the locations, camerawork, performances etc. in relation to our understanding of genres such as the romance thriller and science fiction.
Roy Stafford 25/10/05
The October 2004 issue of Sight & Sound carries both an interesting article on Winterbottom by Ryan Gilbey and a ‘putdown’ review of Code 46 by Kim Newman.
Winterbottom created something of a stir with 9 Songs, the film following Code 46, and his new film has just been shown at the London Film Festival. A Cock and Bull Story is a film about the making of a film of the ‘unfilmable’ Tristram Shandy. It was profiled on last Sunday’s South Bank Show and will be released in the UK in the next few months. Reviews and discussion about the film and Winterbottom’s approach are widely available on the internet.