This event was held at the National Media Museum as part of the Bradford Film Summit. The latter three-day programme did not seem to be that well publicised: I missed a couple of interesting looking events. Apparently there are newsletters that go round but I have only just discovered these.
The Roadshow bought together a number of voluntary and professional groups over a day to hear about and discuss film provision in Yorkshire. We had representatives from the National Media Museum, Cine North, the Film Hub, The Picture House Chain, Leeds International Film Festival, Mini Cine and the Pavilion Arts Project. Also I met people from film clubs and societies, a voluntary run cinema and several local exhibition projects. The day started with a networking session – i.e. socialising over teas and coffees. This gave us a chance to say hello to people, offer introductions and find about a bit about what people did. There is actually a wider range of film projects on the ground than one realises. Chris Fell later mentioned fifty projects or venues in Leeds with whom the Film Festival liases. So one came away with a larger picture of film going ‘up north’.
We then had a series of talks, mostly illustrated by short films or film clips. The first three were members of a Film Hub set of advisers, available with particular expertise for projects. There was Katherine Penny at the Media Museum, Jen Skinner with Reel Solutions and Michael Wood from Mini Cine. At the moment they mainly provide advice on aspects of business and fundraising, audience development and programming.
Then Katherine Penny talked about the Bradford Animation Festival and six short animated films that are available for screenings in 2015. In fact we had a chance to see all six later. There is quite a varied selection, a couple are suitable for children and a couple are definitely adult. My favourite was The Elephant and the Bicycle (France/Belgium 2014, Cert. U), a moral tale with a nice sense of visual humour. The most impressive was Hipopotamy (Poland, 2014, Cert. 18), beautifully drawn but fairly enigmatic. The whole DCP or DVD runs for about 50 minutes.
We had a nice lunch and later Chris Fell, Director of the Leeds International Film Festival, talked about their Short Film City Project, which enjoys funding from the Film Hub North. Chris showed us a couple of examples from 2014, including the winner of the Audience Award. In fact a number of the Short Films at the Festival have been reviewed on this Blog. Chris talked in particular about the difficulties in developing audiences for Short Film programmes. The project, with partners, is ongoing. I have to say that the best examples at the 2014 Festival offered more in 15 or 20 minutes than one gets from some 100-minute features.
Will Rose from the Pavilion Arts Project talked about two films commissioned by them: 9 Intervals and Letter to the Editor of Amateur Photography. Both these have been reviewed on this Blog. The latter was screened recently at the Rotterdam International Film Festival; and is set to appear in Glasgow and New York. Will received a bursary from Film Hub in order to attend the event.
Chris Bate from the Film Hub North rounded off the presentations by highlighting the support that can be offered to film projects. Their new Website goes up very shortly and there are links to funding and bursary opportunities, and a regular newsletter. There was more networking over tea.
The day ended with a presentation from Picture House of their forthcoming release Dark Horse. This is a feature-length documentary due for release in April this year, [reviewed elsewhere].
At the moment the Film Hub North is linked via the Sheffield Showroom, but its own new site should be up soon.
The ratio of the film frame is often overlooked. However, it has changed as cinema itself has experienced major changes. In the silent era the dominant frame was 1.33:1, a third longer on the horizontal than on the vertical. With sound the norm, the Academy ratio was established by Hollywood: 1.37:1, accommodating the soundtrack on one side of the celluloid strip. Widescreen bought more changes: New Academy ratio settled on 1.85:1, though European films as frequently utilised 1.66:1. And anamorphic films offered between 2.55:1 and 2.35:1. Larger screen formats like 70mm, Cinerama and IMAX had their own variations.
When film first appeared on television screens they had to fit into an old-fashioned frame, 4:3. The digital age has bought widescreen television, the norm being 16:9, which equates to 1.78:1. At various times television has cropped, stretched or panned and scanned films. And whilst 16:9 is closer to the modern widescreen ratio such practices continue, though with a less drastic impact.
I tended to think that serious filmmakers and serious exhibitors of film will respect older films, preserving their original presentation: complete as intended, black and white or colour as fits, mono or stereo sound as fits, and the correct aspect ratio. The model here would be the filmmaker Hans-Jűrgen Syberberg, who’s Parsifal opens with the prescription that it only be exhibited in the Academy ratio.
From this point of view 2013 was not a good year. Not just one but four [in my viewing] major and serious filmmakers had films released in which older archive material was cropped or squeezed into a 1.85:1 or even 2.35:1 ratio. There was Ken Loach’s The Spirit of ’45: where the archive material, carefully researched and selected, was almost uniformly cropped to fit a 1.85:1 frame. Andrzej Wajda’s Walesa: Man of Hope (Walesa. Czlowiek z nadziei) also included archive film, this time cropped to fit a frame of 2.35:1. Margarethe von Trotta’s Hannah Arendt included material shot for television of the trial in Jerusalem of Adolf Eichmann. Early in the film there was a cut from such material, cropped to fit a 2.35:1 frame to a dramatised re-enactment in colour and widescreen. This might be justified? But later on there was a cut from Arendt watching a TV monitor to a POV shot, in 2.35:1. And then there was John Akomfrah’s Stuart Hall Project. In this case both earlier film and television footage was cropped to fit the 2.35:1 frame.
I assume that the rationale in all these cases was the time when these films were to be screened on television. In fact, Akomfrah had already used cropping of archive material for his television documentary Martin Luther King and the March on Washington (shown on BBC 2 in 16:9). Much of earlier material in all of these films was noticeably handled at some point – or as above ‘mishandled’. The cropping often cut off heads or the top of the frame, and rendered titles within the frame partial. In the case of 2.35:1 framing, this accentuated the film grain in black and white material. And with some of the colour extracts there was noticeable pixilation.
2014 looks likely to continue this unfortunate practice. Mark Kermode, who I mark as a serious film critic, fronted a profile of Steve McQueen and his new film 12 Years a Slave in which extracts from earlier films like The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Gone With the Wind (1939) were cropped to fit the 16:9 frame. Ironically the extracts from contemporary features were screened in their correct ratio.
NB – Stuart Hall Project is now released on DVD. According to the Sight & Sound review this is in a ratio of 16:9. Why it has been cropped I do not know: but presumably the contrast between the new film and ‘found footage’ will be less stark.
Let me sing the praises of the Alamo Drafthouse cinema chain in Texas. The Guardian (Tuesday 15th October 2013) carried the tale that the singer Madonna was reported by fellow audience members for texting continuously during a screening of 12 Years a Slave at the Walter Reade theatre during the New York Film Festival. The response of the chief executive, Tim League, of Alamo Drafthouse (“known for its strict policy towards unruly customers”) was to ban this celebrity from all its screens. However, the report failed to mention if the Walter Reade theatre or the New York Film Festival took any disciplinary steps. Still, the action by this USA cinema chain should be a shining example not only to exhibitors across North America but also to exhibitors in the UK.
It used to be just the annoying ringtones and illuminated screens as people played their mobile phones. Now they text on phones and tablets, often not just during the adverts and trailers but also during the film screening. Frequently people use the devices during the opening and closing credits of the film. In happier times they at least left early during the latter to avoid the royal anthem. And this happens not only in the multiplexes and multi-screens but also in more serious venues such as (here in West Yorkshire) the Hyde Park Picture House and the National Media Museum. I have even suffered this at Film Festivals. Maybe because I usually go to senior screenings I have not noted the problem at the Cottage Road Cinema.
What I find really disturbing is that at two recent screenings (one being the Leeds Vue venue) there appeared to be no warning prior to the feature about the use of mobile phones. Unfortunately dogs are not admitted otherwise I would spend some time training my faithful canine partner to go hunting round the auditorium. Do any of our readers have helpful suggestions for combating this contemporary plague?
I should add that 12 Years a Slave tells a story of a C19th free New York Afro-American who is captured and forced onto a Louisiana plantation. But then it was always clear that Madonna has no shame. I hope English filmgoers give the film more serious attention when it arrives here.
Postscript: I usually avoid watching/listening to the adverts. However, I have paid closer attetnion on my last couple of visits. The Orange advert that immediately preceded the feature used to end with a warning about turning off mobile phones. The replacement EE [even more naff than its predecessor] no longer contains this. This would seem to mean that cinemas operating Orange/EE Wednesday no longer have a mobile phone use warnings? However CineWorld have their own warning notice that precedes the trailers. And the Cottage Road Cinema do not have the EE advert but they do have a distinct short message about mobile phones.
I have not seen any reports or discussion about this change, which is equally worrying. Bill Lawrence told me that some distributors and/or exhibitors wwere encouraging young audience members at certain screenings to text or twitter their reponses actually during the feature film!
I thought about going to see a film in Leeds later this week. I generally prefer British independents or subtitled films but I like to have a choice. When I looked through the cinema listings for Leeds I discovered that every single film on offer was in English – and virtually every one was a mainstream American or British film. Leeds is a major city. It has suffered from the lack of a specialised cinema such as those that once formed part of the BFI’s Regional Film Theatre network. The council still own the 1914 Hyde Park Cinema which often has excellent programmes (as attested by many of Keith’s posts) but with only a single screen it is sometimes dominated, as in this week, by a film like Rush. The Vue in the city centre usually has something different on offer such as a British independent or a Hindi film, but not this week.
Leeds has been promised an art cinema/specialised cinema for some time and at one point it looked as though a City Screen might open but it didn’t. Then earlier this year Everyman opened a three screen cinema in the new Trinity shopping centre. As expected, it is an expensive cinema (i.e. for the region at £11) but we did expect it to show some decent specialised films. The offer today is Diana, Rush, Insidious 2 and About Time. What a joke! The original Everyman in Hampstead was where I first saw most of the 1960s canon of art cinema. I weep when I think of what the name means now – stuffing your face with pizza watching Hollywood.
So with a population of 800,000 and something like 43 or more cinema seats, Leeds can’t offer a film in any other language than English tonight. The nearest sanity is in Bradford (The Great Beauty, Wadjda at the National Media Museum and several Hindi titles at Cineworld or the Odeon) or Sheffield for the Showroom. I read a comment somewhere in the last few weeks suggesting that subtitles are ‘difficult’ with the implication that cinemas find it hard to programme foreign language films. With this kind of attitude I seriously fear for the diversity of cinema in the UK. No doubt we will return to this topic.